By Fredrik Nygaard,
November 2016
Introduction
In my essay titled “The Gravity Mystery”,
published September 2016, I pointed out that both gravity and capacitance of our
planet appear to have increased over time. I postulated from this that charge
held in capacitors may be the cause of gravity.
I called this hypothesis the Capacitor Model
of Gravity, and although I did not elaborate on it, I claimed that it would
support the theory that Earth is both hollow and expanding. I also claimed that
the Capacitor Model is fully compatible with other gravity related observations.
I did not include a theoretical backing of
my claims because I did not have a ready formula at the time. However, this has
now changed, and I will in this paper present a simple formula that makes the
Capacitor Model mathematically equivalent to Newton's model in all but a few
cases, namely at the centre of large bodies and for close interaction between
two or more large bodies.
Starting with the basic fundamentals related
to capacitors, I will show that there is nothing about the Capacitor Model, or
dipole gravity in general, that automatically makes it incompatible with
observed facts.
Characteristics of
Capacitors
A capacitor is a charge carrying object.
Anything that can hold charge without resorting to a change in chemistry is a
capacitor, and since almost everything fits this description to some extent, we
can say that capacitors are just about everywhere.
However, some capacitors are more efficient
than others. We can create an efficient capacitor by placing two charge carrying
plates close together with a suitable insulator, a socalled dielectric, placed
in between them.
The charge carrying ability of a capacitor
is known as its capacitance,
and this ability is inversely related to the distance between the charge
carrying plates. Capacitance increases when
the distance between the plates is reduced.
If the dielectric of a capacitor
is made thinner, the capacitance of that capacitor increases.
It should also be noted that capacitance is
a dipole phenomenon. Charged capacitors have a “plus” and a “minus” side.
Charge Held in
Capacitors
Standard physics tells us that charge held
in capacitors results in no external effect, but much speculation has considered
whether this is true[1][2]. Many argue that charge held inside capacitors can,
in some way, affect their external environment.
Approaching the subject from various angles,
those arguing that there must be some external effect due to charge held in
capacitors generally believe that this effect is likely to be what we refer to
as gravity. However, the effect is so small that only truly enormous capacitors
are able to hold enough charge to produce a measurable effect.
Our planet and other stellar bodies such as
our moon and sun are sufficiently large to produce gravity. Smaller bodies like
asteroids and comets also produce gravity, but to a lesser extent. Small bodies
such as rocks, boulders, animals and humans, hold too little charge to produce
any detectable gravity.
Earth as a Hollow
Capacitor
We know for a fact that Earth is a
capacitor, and we know that it is likely to be an efficient one due to its
chemical composition. Even if our planet is solid to the core, the capacitance
of our planet is enormous. But should it be the case that our planet is hollow,
then its capacitance would be much greater still, because a hollow Earth implies
a relatively thin dielectric crust, and therefore higher capacitance.
The Gravity Atom
Since capacitance is a dipole phenomenon,
and we assume gravity to be directly linked to this phenomenon, we must also
assume that gravity at the atomic level is a dipole. And since gravity acts on
mass, which is an attribute of subatomic matter, it must operate at the
subatomic level. Just like mass, gravity is a property related to the subatomic.
We have no idea if such a thing as a gravity
atom exists. No one has ever been able to locate such an entity. However, from a
mathematical perspective the notion of a gravity atom serves a useful purpose in
that it helps us explore the overall phenomenon of gravity. We will therefore
discuss gravity atoms as if they really exist. Since we have no way of knowing
what such an atom would look like, we might as well choose to define it in the
simplest possible terms.
We will therefore define the gravity atom as
a perfect sphere with one half charged opposite to the other half. From this, we
will derive a formula for describing gravity mathematically.
Gravity atoms only exist inside charged
capacitors, and they line up according to the electrical field that creates
them. Their negative poles face towards the negatively charged plate, while
their positive poles face towards the positively charged plate.
Note that for a spherical capacitor, hollow
or not, gravity atoms will all be facing radially out from the centre. They will
all have one end pointing in and the other end pointing out. Ref fig 2.
Problems With The Dipole
Model
In my essay “The Dipole Model of Gravity and
the Expanding Earth”, published January 2016, I made an extensive general
analysis of dipole gravity. One of the troubling conclusions I arrived at was
that dipole gravity will not produce a centre of gravity at the geometrical
centre of stellar bodies. The centre of gravity would appear to be located
relatively close to the observer. This in turn, made it difficult to calculate
changes to gravity with altitude.
In my essay, “Universal Gravity Based on a
Dipole Model”, published February 2016, it proved extremely hard to explain
orbits when using a dipole model.
The problems with dipole gravity seemed
insurmountable. However, I had overlooked an important possibility that can be
derived directly from the fact that dipoles only exhibit repelling properties
with respect to other dipoles.
If gravity atoms are distinct from mass, as
the Capacitor Model implies, we get that gravity atoms may always attract mass,
regardless of which poles are used. Only when gravity atoms interact with other
gravity atoms will there be a dipole effect for sure.
Dual Behaviour of
Dipoles
If gravity and mass are two separate things,
then we can liken gravity on mass interaction with the way magnets act with
respect to iron filings. While magnets attract or repel each other depending on
the arrangement of their poles, they uniformly attract iron filings. Iron
filings are never repelled by magnets, regardless of which poles are used.
Likewise, mass may always be attracted by gravity. Only gravity atoms
interacting with other gravity atoms will display dipole properties.
And if we add to this an assumption that
dipole on dipole interaction between gravity atoms taper off at a more rapid
rate than dipole on mass interaction, we get attraction in all cases, except
when two gravitationally charged surfaces of identical polarity are located very
close to each other.
Keeping in mind that only truly enormous
capacitors can be said to be sufficiently charged to produce any measurable
gravity, the repelling aspect of gravity will only come into effect on the
inside of gravitational bodies, and when two or more gravitational bodies are in
close encounter with each other. Ref fig 2.
Defining Gravity for the
Capacitor Model
From the above speculations we can now
define the gravity atom as follows:
1. It
is a dipole
2. It
is a perfect sphere
3. It
attracts mass equally with both poles
4. It
acts as a dipole, only in respect to other gravity atoms
5. It
obeys the inverse square law when it interacts with mass
6. It
obeys the inverse cube law [3] when it interacts with other gravity atoms
7. It
acts unhindered by intervening matter
8. It
exists only inside charged capacitors
9. It
lines up with the electrical field within capacitors
Dipoles Behaving like
Monopoles
Now, if we consider point 1, 2 and 3 of the
above definition, we get that gravity atoms are indistinguishable from monopoles
when it comes to how they act on mass. This is because perfectly spherical
dipoles that act equally with both poles are mathematically equivalent to
monopoles.
And if we include point 7 from the above
list we get the exact same mathematical starting point that Newton used to
develop his shell theorem.
Adding to this the inverse square law by
including point 5, we get that gravity as described by Newton, and gravity as
described by the Capacitor Model are identical as long as dipole effects due to
mutually repelling gravity atoms can be ignored. We get a centre of gravity
located at the geometrical centre of our planet, and we get the same results
that Newton got for both orbits and changes in gravity with altitude.
Dipoles Behaving Like
Dipoles
As far as neutral bodies are concerned, the
Capacitor Model of Gravity is completely Newtonian in its predictions. At large
distances we get Newtonian predictions for gravitationally charged bodies as
well. This is due to the fact that the dipole on dipole effect tapers off
according to the inverse cube law. At large distances, the dipole effect becomes
insignificant.
However, the dipole effect is important
inside gravitationally charged bodies. At the inside of such a body, gravity
acts with an attracting force on mass as it always does. However, there will be
mutual repulsion between gravity atoms because these all line up with their
positive end facing in towards the centre. Ref Fig 2.
This opens for the possibility that
gravitationally charged bodies may be hollow. In fact, if the repelling force
between gravity atoms is strong enough to overcome the attracting force between
gravity atoms and mass, gravitationally charged bodies cannot avoid having a
cavity at their centre when they are in their equilibrium state.
Furthermore, we get that neutral bodies and
gravitationally charged bodies will be affected differently by changes in
gravity of a nearby gravitational body. While an increase in gravity of our
planet will result in a direct increase in pull on gravitationally neutral
bodies like ourselves, this will not be the case for our moon. Our moon, being a
gravitationally charged body, will be affected by both an increase in attraction
and an increase in repulsion.
This follows from the same logic used to
explain the possibility of a cavity inside gravitationally charged bodies. Our
moon and our planet are facing each other with mutually repelling gravity atoms.
Only the gravity atom on mass interaction is producing an attracting force. The
gravity atom on gravity atom interaction is producing a repelling force.
Depending on the distances involved and the
exact relative strength of the two opposing forces, we get anything from an
overall increase to an overall decrease in attraction between an expanding
planet and its moons.
The fact that our moon is receding from us,
can at least in part, be explained by the dipole effect.
Other Considerations
When looking into anything that has to do
with gravity, it has to be remembered that gravity is a weak force. Our universe
is awash in electromagnetic activity which no doubt plays an important role. Our
receding moon may for instance be affected more by electrostatic repulsion
between itself and our planet than by the dipole effect theorized in this paper.
However, gravity is a major force in our
solar system, and it behaves pretty much exactly as predicted by Newton. Any
theory of gravity which aims to replace or improve upon Newton's theory, must
therefore make the same predictions for orbits and altitudes as does the
standard model. Very little deviation can be tolerated.
The fact that the Capacitor Model matches
Newton's model as well as it does is in other words essential. Without such a
close match the Capacitor Model would not be able to stand up to scrutiny.
However, with the match being as close as it is, I expect that the Capacitor
Model will be very difficult to refute.
Conclusion
From the above analysis, we get that the
Capacitor Model of Gravity is mathematically equivalent to Newton's model when
it comes to orbits and changes in gravity with altitude. The only difference is
that gravity in the Capacitor Model is not caused by mass acting on mass, but by
chargeinduced gravity in capacitors acting on mass. The dipole effect can then
be ignored for large distances.
However, the dipole effect is important at
short distances. The dipole effect allows for hollow, expanding planets, it
explains how gravity may increase due to expansion, and why moons may recede
from expanding planets even as gravity grows stronger.
We have arrived at a mathematical model that
solves all the problems laid out in “The Gravity Mystery”, and we can conclude
that there is nothing about dipole gravity that makes it automatically
incompatible with observed facts. The possibility that our planet may be
expanding due to internal pressures can no longer be dismissed on a purely
theoretical basis.
Related
Essays
The Gravity Mystery:
http://www.checktheevidence.com/cms/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=442&Itemid=59
The Dipole Model of Gravity and the
Expanding Earth:
http://www.checktheevidence.com/cms/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=433&Itemid=59
Universal Gravity Based on a
Dipole Model:
http://www.checktheevidence.com/cms/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=434&Itemid=59
Foot
Notes:
[1] Michael Faraday looked
into the possibility that gravity had an electromagnetic origin.
[2] Thomas Townsend Brown did
extensive research into a possible connection between capacitance and gravity.
[3] The inverse cube law is an
arbitrary choice. The important point is that it is of a higher order than the
inverse square law that governs gravitational attraction.
