A “Lengthy” Discussion of WTC Steel

Inspired by the Research of Dr Judy Wood

Andrew Johnson

November 2007

1         INTRODUCTION

The research published by Dr Judy Wood on her website www.drjudywood.com graphically
documents the paucity of debris following the 10-seconds-per-tower
destruction of two quarter-mile buildings on 9/11/01. As an attempt to
numerically illustrate the level of destruction, an overall figure of the
total length of steel, which should have been present in the debris pile, is
here calculated.

1.1                Basic Data about the World Trade Center Towers 1 and 2

A figure of 415 metres was used for the height of the towers. These values

 Parameter Value (m) building width 63.14 building depth 63.14 core width 41.8 core depth 26.52

Table 1‑1 WTC Dimensions

were taken from

and were used in the calculations below.

1.2                But this pointless! The Steel Was Quickly Shipped Away!

It seems that various unsubstantiated statements have been made over time to
explain the extreme level of absence of debris. One such statement is “The
steel was all sold to China and shipped away promptly, before it could be
examined.” However, we have no evidence that such a large-scale operation
was undertaken or completed in the immediate aftermath of 9/11. Did anyone
report many fleets of trucks, filled with steel girders, driving down the
streets of Manhattan to the Docks. and their loads being transferred onto
large container vessels? There are no pictures or video of this supposed
operation that are readily available, nor have the details of such a major
clean-up exercise ever been discussed.

1.3                Can We “Count” The Debris?

In Part 1 of “The Overwhelming Implausibility of  Using Directed Energy Beams to Demolish the
, published online in the Journal
of 9/11 Studies
, Dr Jenkins states:

Some proponents of the ‘missing debris’ hypothesis prefer to “count” the
debris from photographs. This is an inherently reckless approach to the
problem. Photographs offer no way to directly view all the individual steel
beams in debris piles or debris occupying sublevel collapses. For instance,
any attempt to “count” the beams or “wall sections” in the debris pile of
WTC 7 will fall short of accounting for the total mass of the building for
the simple reason that the debris is located in a pile and all photographs
only show the surface. That does not mean that the rubble pile does not
contain the mass of the building. Even if the debris were spread out
somewhat, the same problem applies when attempting to “count” the debris.

In this article, I hope to show that, because of the sheer scale of the WTC
buildings, there is considerable value in attempting to calculate other
figures which illustrate the very large volume of material which should have
been visible in the immediate aftermath of the WTC Towers destruction.

2         CALCULATING APPROXIMATE TOTAL LENGTH OF STEEL

2.1                Vertical Columns

The towers were 415 metres above ground, though some steel pieces would have
been below ground level. There were 236 exterior (perimeter) columns and 47
interior (core) steel columns in each building.

Total Length of Vertical Steel = 566 x 415

= 234890m

2.2                Spandrels and “Weatchex”

The spandrel steel belts on the exterior walls were approximately 1.32m
wide, and when joined, they spanned the width of one side of the building.
Therefore

Approximate total length of Spandrel Steel per floor  = 63.14 x 4
= 252.56

Total Length of Spandrel Steel
= 252.56 x 2
x 110

55563.2m

Figure 2‑1 Spandrels – “Wheatchex” – Page 27 of NCSTAR1-3B

Looking at this another way, there would have been:

Number of Exterior Columns x No of Buildings x Height / Group of 3 9.1
metre lengths

= 236*2*415/(3*9.1)

7175 “Wheatchex” (approx)

How many of these can we see in the debris piles?

2.3                Trusses

The trusses spanned the interior of each floor of the building, as shown
below

Figure 2‑2 Diagram Illustrating Total Lengths of Truss Steel (Page 16 of
NCSTAR1-3B)

Looking at the diagram,

• We have 20 pieces of Length A, top and bottom = 40 pieces of Length A
• We have 14 pieces of Length B, left and right = 28 pieces of length B
• We have 10 pieces of Length C running Top to Bottom
• We have 18 pieces of Length C running Left to Right

The actual pieces may have been arranged in a more complicated grid than
that assumed using lengths A, B and C – but these would have been good
approximations to the total length

Length A is given by (63.14 – 26.52)/2                        = 18.31

Length B is given by (63.14 – 41.8)/2                         = 10.67

Length C is 63.14 metres

Total Length of “A” pieces would be: 18.31 x 20         = 366.2

Total Length of “B” pieces would be: 10.67 x 28        = 298.76

Total Length of “C” pieces would be: 63.14 x 18        = 1136.52

Total Length of Steel Pieces in 1 floor                        = 1801.48

Total Length of Steel Pieces in the 2 towers              = 1801.48 x 2
x 110

396326m

2.4                Floorpans

Outside of the core, steel floor pans were used and these were filled with
concrete. The floor area in sq metres would be:

Total Floor area=63.14 x  63.14 – (26.52 x 41.8)        = 2878.12 sq
m

It is understood that the floor pans were approximately 3 x 20 metres, but I
have not been able to find an exact figure for this. This would mean there
would likely be 48 of them per floor (if they were all the same size, which
is just an approximation)

So, if we were to consider these as lengths of steel, we would have
48 lengths of 20 metres of steel per floor

Total Length of Steel in Floor Pans     = 48 x 20

= 960m per floor

Total Length of Steel in Floor Pans     = 960 x 2 x 110

211200m

3         TOTALS

3.1                Exclusions

The total given in the next section is probably rather conservative, as
there are at least 2 elements omitted from the calculation – the
cross-bracing in the core and, for example, the panelling around the
elevator shafts – some of which should have survived.

3.2                Totalling

Totalling the figures calculated in Section 2:

Table 3‑1 Length Totals

 Metres Kilometres Miles Vertical Columns 234890 235 147 Spandrels 55563 56 35 Trusses 396326 396 248 Floorpans 211200 211 132 Total 897979 898 561

So, as a rough approximation:

There should have been a total length, laid end to end of over 550
miles
of steel pieces.

Allowing a 10% margin of error in these calculations would bring the figure
down to over 500 miles length of steel in the debris. Needless to say, the
for example, the hundreds of miles of cabling and ducting which the towers
would also have contained – little, if any, of which were seen in the debris
piles.

4         WHERE DID 500 MILES LENGTH OF STEEL GO?

The photos in this section are from www.drjudywood.com .

4.1                 Did the WTC Steel End up in the basements?

There have been attempts to reduce the significance of the findings of Dr
Wood. One such attempt, authored by Dr
Greg Jenkins is called “The Overwhelming Implausibility of  Using Directed
Energy Beams to Demolish the World Trade Center Towers”,
and published
online in the Journal
of 9/11 Studies

Part 1 of this paper is entitled “What Missing Debris?” and Dr Jenkins
writes:

If all the building debris were compacted into the damaged sublevels,
then this would yield a volumetric compression ratio of 10.2%. This is
within the error of the compression ratio for WTC 7, 11.5 ± 1.6% . This
means that, within error, all of the debris in the WTC complex can be
accounted for within the sublevel collapses.

It can be suggested that there are at least 2 problems with this
supposition. As the WTC towers came down, we see that there is little or no
compaction going on – rather, the towers are turning to dust, so there is no
physical process which would compress the debris to fit in the basements. We
can categorically state that, whilst there was some debris in the
basements, that debris was not especially compacted, nor did it fill the
basements.

4.2                The Debris Was Not in The Basements

Photographs (and other evidence) that Dr Wood has
presented illustrate that only a small or even tiny proportion of the total
debris was in the WTC Basement Levels.

Figure 4‑1 – GZ workers descend into the
subbasements below WTC2. While there is extensive damage, there is little
building debris at the bottom of the hole. There is no sign of molten metal.
A worker in the distance walks along a massive core column. (photo filed
9/18/01)
Source

Figure 4‑2 This photo was taken inside the
mall. The store sign “innovation” is visible on the left.
(photo filed 9/19/01)

4.1                Was the Debris Laid out Above the Basements?

This picture would seem indicate there were very few long
lengths of steel in the vicinity of WTC during the afternoon of 9/11.

Figure 4‑3 – On the afternoon of 9/11/01 the “rubble pile” left from WTC1 is
essentially non-existent. WTC7 can be seen in the distance, revealing the
photo was taken before 5:20 PM that day.

There only seem to be a few “Wheatchex” or long lengths of steel in all of
the picture below. A conservative guess would perhaps be 100 “Wheatchex”, in
total, in all the pictures below:

Figure 4‑4  here again we see the “rubble
pile” from WTC1 is essentially non-existent. The ambulance is parked at
ground level in front of WTC1. WTC6, which had been an eight-story building,
towers over the remains of WTC1.

Figure 4‑5 – The north wing of WTC4, as
viewed from Church Street, looking west, appears surgically removed from the
main body of WTC4, which has essentially disappeared. If WTC2 fell on it and
squashed the main building, where is the part of WTC2 that did this?

Figure 4‑6 One of Bill Biggart’s last
pictures, perhaps his next to last picture.