Max Barker – 08/08/2019
During the time I have spent conducting research within the academic and non-academic spheres, I have come to realize that there is a growing body of research that cannot adequately be categorized by either of these spheres of influence. It is generally published online and some of the most common mediums used for conveying the information come in the form of articles and books. Much of the evidence that is used to validate the arguments made would not be considered as academic as it does not originate from a peer reviewed, scientific source. It is also independently conducted and published online by individuals and organizations, some of whom manage their own website. The research I am referring to is of the interdisciplinary type, which is not surprising given that this kind of research is reliant upon an aggregation of information sources, some of which are not accounted for by academia. One of the motivations for the way these researchers and organizations conduct their research stems from the recognition that there are certain matters of contention that are not being discussed in enough detail and/or are not being communicated in a truthful manner to the public. As such, their publications are written in a format and language that is simultaneously easy to understand for the layman, and objective in terms of facticity. The motivation also exists due to how the peer review process within the scientific community has been found to be discriminatory. As a result of these factors, as well as others that shall be mentioned in this article, the authors tend to not publish their research in peer reviewed scientific journals or in any other sector of the scientific establishment. I have identified that because of this, there is a need for a kind of publication that may be described as semi-academic and formally designated as an Objective, Non-Academic Publication. Even though semi-academic publications already exist, they seem to lack the recognition they deserve as they are not acknowledged as a formal publication format. It may also be due to them not having a standard structural outline. Thus, I shall explain as to how the structural outline of the academic and non-academic publications differ, which will help to reduce the ambiguities that are associated with semi-academic publications. Further, I shall describe as to how an objective, non-academic publication may be designed so that it becomes a practical format for conveying interdisciplinary research in a manner that is as objective and unambiguous as possible. This is especially appropriate for the 21st century where the internet has drastically facilitated the mobilization of knowledge from the few to the many.
Research and Analysis
In the world of research, there are two categories into which knowledge is divided. Those are the academic and non-academic categories. The word “academic” originally comes from the Greek word for Academia, which was the name of the place where the philosopher Plato once taught. It also refers to the acquisition of knowledge that is “theoretical, not practical, not leading to a decision” and therefore, open to debate.1 This is where science comes from, because it is based upon the art of objective observation and analysis. Those that practice this art and who present their discoveries and hypotheses in the most unambiguous manner as is possible, are called scientists. Note that the word “science” is contained within the word “conscience” which suggests that science is a method for arriving as closely as possible to the truth. In the realm of academia, the scientific method is used when conducting a study and the results obtained from the study are converted into the form of an article. This is usually carried out by someone who is an expert within their field of discipline and who intends to share her/his findings with other academics and/or university students. The research findings are formally presented in an article that has an academic format. It is structured and by standard, it includes an abstract, which provides the reader with a general impression of the subject matter. This may be followed by a section detailing the methodology of the study; that is, how it was carried out to ensure that it was as fair as possible and what were the study’s limitations. This is usually followed by a section for the literature that has been reviewed and for discussing the ideas formed by the process of having reviewed the literature. At the end of the article there is a final section containing an assorted list of informational sources that were consulted for helping to increase the clarity and legitimacy of the study. The language of an academic article is descriptive and technical; it includes the use of words that are not commonly used in everyday language. This helps with the identification of certain concepts or phenomena that may be challenging to describe using non-technical language. Once an academic paper is ready to be published, it is sometimes peer reviewed. The purpose of peer review is to ensure that only research of the highest quality is published. This is done by checking for plagiarization and to prevent authors from directly copying the work of others without having stated that they are borrowing ideas that aren’t theirs. Similarly, it also helps to ensure that the research published is adding to the knowledge base of society. Peer review also serves as a feedback mechanism for helping to improve the quality of the work carried out by researchers, by helping them identify any errors in their research methods and/or facticity.2 Everything I have mentioned about the peer review process should be regarded as a general rule, because there are exceptions, something which I shall discuss later in this article. For now, I shall limit my description of the academic publication to what has been discussed so far, as this is in essence what it is comprised of. Examples of peer reviewed, academic articles can be found on the online scientific journal called Science, which is one of the world’s oldest and largest science organizations. It is also widely considered to publish some of the best scholarly research in the world.3
In contrast to its counterpart, the non-academic publication usually has none of the characteristics that would make it academic. This is because its main purpose is to captivate and entertain the readers. It is not usually authored by an individual who is an expert in their field of discipline, but rather, by a features editor or journalist. The latter do not always have a background in science. The text of the publication has minimal structure, which is to say that it usually only has an introduction, followed by a section for general discussion and a conclusion. Research details are usually omitted as these are not deemed to be interesting or significant for the casual reader. The language of the text is informal and technical terms are used sparingly. Even when the latter are utilized, they are not always defined. Further, the text is only reviewed by an editor, mainly for grammatical purposes. Reviewing for facticity and logic is generally not mandatory. Examples of non-academic articles can be found on the website of The Economist, which is a magazine-format newspaper publisher. It publishes opinion editorials that are, according to the organization based upon “facts, and analysis, incorporating The Economist’s perspective.”4 Note the emphasis (not mine) on the organization’s name, indicating that the organization’s publications are figuratively unscientific, as they rely on a perspective that is reflective of the organization’s values. This is also an indication that the organization employs an economic perspective, which as I must point out, is one that is recognized for being vague and unscientific. This does not necessarily mean that what the organization reports on is untruthful, though. What this does suggest is that its publications have a greater likelihood of being biased and inaccurate, when compared to articles that are published by a scientific journal. Now that I have established what it means to be “academic” and have explained the differences between publications that are academic and those that are not, I shall discuss in the next paragraph what an objective, non-academic publication is, why it is needed today and why its importance will grow in the future.
What is an objective, non-academic publication? As I have suggested in the introduction, it is neither academic, nor non-academic. To expand on this, it is objective in that the purpose of such a publication is to present a subject matter in a way that is both reflective of what happens in reality and simultaneously, conveys this information to the reader in a manner that is easy to understand. It is non-academic in the sense that it need not be comprised of all the characteristics that make a publication academic, as I have discussed previously. It is called a publication because this format of publishing information is applicable not only to articles, but to books and magazines as well, for instance. This kind of publication is a necessity, especially during the 21st century and I shall explain why. In the introduction I have suggested that there is a growing body of research that is being published online by independent researchers. These researchers have identified that there are certain controversial subject matters that are not being investigated in enough detail, and/or not being relayed to the public in a truthful manner.5 Because of this they have taken the initiative to publish their own research and disseminate it through non-scholarly websites, so that their work can be accessed swiftly and by anyone. Another reason for their having taken such an initiative is that they have found the academic establishment and the peer review system to be discriminatory toward scientific research that challenges certain beliefs as to how nature functions. Apparently, this issue is serious enough that some scientists who used to be a part of academia had been forced to voice their concerns about the importance and necessity for open scientific inquiry. As such, websites have been created to address this issue and to make it open for public scrutiny.6 Another reason for the necessity of the publication format I am proposing for can be associated with what has been mentioned about open scientific inquiry, although there are some differences. Due to the rapid progression of scientific and technological research, there has been a growing trend where the socioeconomic system has been unable to make optimal use of all the available research for improving the living conditions of people. As a response to this, a growing proportion of researchers have come to the realization that the growing gap between research and development is leading to a substantial loss in unrealized profits, as well as in the improvement in quality of life for people. Out of the need to address this growing issue, the field of knowledge mobilization has come into existence.7 What the term describes is the transmittance of knowledge throughout the academic and non-academic spheres of influence by producing and using research in a manner that is most efficient. This involves the production of research from within academia and the research findings are then conveyed to non-academics, which helps to inform decisions and processes that are made in the sectors that include, but are not limited to: business, government and the media, for instance. The reason I am bringing this into the discussion is because an objective, non-academic publication could also contribute by closing this gap even further. Independent researchers could thus have a better means for communicating their own research findings that they have found to be worthy of sharing. Let me remind the readers that the context in which nearly everything I have discussed in this article so far, is in one way or another related to problem solving. Because problem solving usually involves some degree of complexity, especially when the human factor is taken into account, it thus necessitates an interdisciplinary approach.8 When extending this further, the latter is applied when conducting research that may involve the use of literature sources that are neither academic, nor non-academic. I shall discuss the meaning of this in the next paragraph, which will help to clarify what the publication type I am proposing may be comprised of, and how it may be designed.
The objective, non-academic publication is not new, at least not in conceptual terms. Variants already exist and these are loosely referred to as semi-academic publications. These tend to be distributed by non-governmental organizations whose aim is to influence public policy by presenting scientific research to a general audience.9 They are also distributed online by independent researchers, whose aim is to discuss controversial subject matters that are not discussed in enough detail, and/or not conveyed truthfully to the public by established entities. This is something I have already mentioned in the previous paragraph, but I am saying it again just for emphasis. As I have mentioned in the introduction, these publications currently do not seem to have any official structural format. This can be partly attributed to their not being a formally recognized publication. Also, it is due to the ambiguities that surround the literature sources used for validating the information that is conveyed. What I am alluding to is what is known as grey literature, which is an informal type of publication that is not published through traditional means. As such, it is considered to be half published because it does not go through the process of publication and distribution by commercial entities.10 Examples of grey literature may include: audio/visual media, blogs and research reports. Over the years, grey literature has garnered increasing attention due to the realization that it helps in conducting more in-depth research within a shorter period of time. This has been made possible due to sources of data and information that may have not been possible to access or find through traditional means; that is to say, through scientific databases. Even though this has permitted researchers to work with greater flexibility and speed, one of the main challenges has been in classifying the literature appropriately. Due to the sheer range and volume of grey literature that is processed by archives and libraries, it is often difficult to locate the right kind of information, since each data or information type is usually intended for a specific purpose. However, as the internet becomes faster and more sophisticated, it is expected that it will become easier for people to find the literature that may need. Already though, this is being witnessed as there is a wealth of data and information that can be found on the Internet Archive, which is one of the largest public digital libraries in the world.11 The website may be one of the best examples where masses of grey literature can be found; a cursory search may lead to a diversity of results ranging from: conference proceedings, fact sheets, newsletters, pre-prints and post-prints of articles to research reports and more. So what it is the significance of this? In the past, information was usually conveyed either in an academic or non-academic format. This is now rapidly changing where grey literature is enabling researchers to publish semi-academic work, which caters mainly for non-scholars. This type of research will become increasingly important in the future as the gap between the scholarly and non-scholarly spheres of influence closes. Due to the sheer quantity of data and information produced from research and development in the scientific and technological sectors over the years, the challenge is to now synthesize it in a manner that is comprehendible for nearly any targeted audience. Incidentally, this is what knowledge mobilization is all about. Also, this is where an objective, non-academic publication would be useful, as it would enable the readers to extract valuable information that is conducive toward solving problems that affect society. How though, might such a publication be designed and what might its structural outline consist of?
As I have stated in the introduction, semi-academic publications are most commonly distributed on the internet in the form of an article or book. Thus, I shall explain as to how an objective, non-academic publication might be designed and structured so that the framework can be used for publishing articles, books and nearly any other literary work. This is so that the authors have the flexibility and the framework needed for publishing research that is objective and that has a measurable impact on society, without having to commit to the rigid guidelines that are required by academia. The important thing to consider is how it is going to be used for conveying information to the targeted audience as effectively and as efficiently as possible. What differentiates this publication from the rest is related to linguistics and its structural outline. With regards to the former, it has been suggested that one way of improving the readability of an article is by adding “moves”, which is a method authors could use in the introduction to state their intentions and to help the reader follow them in their path of analysis.12 For example, the authors establish an area of research that they think is important and attempt to convince the reader as to why this is so. If they are investigating an area of research that is not unique, then they may state that their study is intended to address the knowledge gap left open from previous studies. Sequentially, they may then state as to how they will be addressing that knowledge gap and this may be done by forming a hypothetical question, with the latter stimulating critical thought in the mind of the reader. They would then proceed in explaining as to how their study is structured, allowing the reader to understand as to what they should expect. Likewise, if the research area is unique, which also depends to what degree that might be, then the authors would follow a similar procedure, except that they would need to state as to why the research area is unique and how they made their discoveries. Another way of making the publication more readable is by changing the text so that the reader feels as if the author is directly communicating with them. This is done by ensuring that the text reads in the present tense and where the author directly addresses the reader, when appropriate. For example, instead of saying “It was suggested that…”, it would be better to say “I suggest that…”. This style of language is more likely to engage the readers as it helps them to visualize and understand more easily the information that is being communicated to them. With regards to the latter characteristic of the publication, the structural outline has a title, an introduction, a section for research and analysis, a conclusion and a list of references. The basic structure does not include any other sections, yet they may be added by the researcher depending on the subject matter they are studying. For instance, I have not included the methodology section because I am assuming that most individuals would use this publication framework for conducting secondary research, which involves using data and information that already exists. When this is coupled with the linguistic alterations, it makes it possible for the authors to state their intentions throughout the entirety of their work, without needing to validate their arguments in a separate section. Further, a methodology section is usually necessary in a publication that describes a research study that the author carried out themselves. Since the kind of publication I am proposing does not need to involve primary research, I leave it to the discretion of the author for deciding whether additional sections are required. If they do choose to add additional sections, then I would recommend that they follow regular academic procedures in order to maintain objectivity and for allowing the readers to replicate the results they obtained from their research study.13 Once the author has completed their work, they should proceed to check it for errors, both factual and grammatical. They may decide to have their article or book reviewed by friends, relatives, fellow scientists, or even a combination of all three. The author may also have their work go through the process of peer review, which based upon what I have discussed previously is unlikely to get the author anywhere, given that the academic establishment has rigid standards and is incapacitated by its own dogmatic beliefs. Although I think it is recommendable that the author has their work reviewed by others, insofar as it helps to reduce their workload, I must emphasize that they are the ones who understand their work best. Before they even begin thinking about sending their work for review, they should analyze it as meticulously as they can, although I admit this is not easy considering the time constraints they might have due to having other responsibilities in life. Therefore, what I would recommend is that they task themselves with ensuring that their facticity and logic is coherent, which is what they are most capable of doing, relative to anyone else. They could then have their work sent for review, but mainly for grammatical purposes, which can help for both: improving the readability of their research for the general public and reducing their workload. Ideally though, the author should be able to do all error checking for themselves without needing external help because this will ultimately help them to become not only better analysts, but better communicators as well. With that being said, I shall illustrate the details of the publication’s framework in the following subsection.
Design and Structural Outline of an Article14
This may be considered as the beginning of the article because it is the first part that the reader encounters. Thus, a research article should be appropriately titled so that it sets the context for the subject matter. Ideally, it should be concise, descriptive of the article’s contents, unbiased and contain language that is in the present tense. The latter is mentioned because it helps the reader to visualize more easily the message that is being conveyed by the author. The past and future tenses generally do not elicit as much visual imagery, which is why the present tense is recommended. To concretize this description, I shall use the title of the article I have written as an example. The title of this article is concise and unambiguous because it describes the object, which is the publication. It is known that the object, which is the publication, is both objective and non-academic. To be fair, some readers might find the title to be slightly ambiguous, in the sense that a publication may refer to any of the following: a book, a magazine, a newspaper or a pamphlet, for example. However, I have done this on purpose because as I have explained a number of times, what I am proposing and emphasizing in importance is the need for a different kind of publication, one which may be distributed in the form of an article or book. Hence, the word “publication” is appropriate given the context.
The introductory section is important for letting the readers know what the subject matter is and why it is being studied. Structurally, the author begins with a broad generalization at the beginning of the introduction. Toward the end of the section a brief explanation of the specifics is provided. The above-mentioned helps the readers obtain a summary as to what is being studied and why it may be worth their time to continue reading. This should eliminate the need for an abstract, although depending on the author, one may still be included, if the author believes it is necessary. In whichever way the author begins, he/she may summarize their personal experiences and combine those with some research to help the readers understand from where they are coming from, in terms of what led them to conduct the study and why they believed that it was worth the effort. More specifically, the author might do this by presenting a problem or even a set of problems that he/she believes must be addressed. They may also pose one or more hypothetical questions to stimulate critical thinking in the mind of the reader. The introduction may be brought to a close with the author specifying on what he/she intends to discuss in the proceeding section(s). If a problem has been presented at the beginning of the introduction, then the author may provide an explanation as to what might be done to solve it. All of this is made evident in the introductory section of this article, where it can be noticed that I have begun by explaining my background experiences and the research I have conducted. I then proceed to elaborate on an issue that I think is worth discussing, which in this case is the need for an objective non-academic publication. Toward the end of the section I state as to how the article will develop by my explanation of the differences between academic and non-academic publications, what the publication I am proposing is, why it is important and then proceeding with a description of how its framework would be designed. All of the above would provide the reader with an idea as to what this article is about and what the specific points of contention would be.
- Research and Analysis
This section may be considered as a combination of the literature review and the discussion sections that are normally found in some academic articles. Instead of having two separate sections, I have decided to combine them, which is why I have labelled this section as “Research and Analysis”. The “Research” segment refers to the research I have conducted for helping to validate the assertions I am making. The “Analysis” segment refers to the reasoning that I apply with regards to the available evidence and for making an informed judgment. This section does not need to have the name I have given it; it can be named differently, depending on the author’s preferences and the kind of research they are carrying out. I have named the section as such because the research I am currently performing is interdisciplinary. As I have explained before, because one of the objectives of this article involves solving a problem, it requires a pooling of information sources from a variety of scientific disciplines. Because of this, I have found it appropriate to present the literature I have encountered together with my analysis, which has helped me in communicating my thoughts objectively and (hopefully) in a way that makes sense to the reader. Because the publication framework is flexible, this means that the author can add additional sections depending on the kind of research they are conducting. As I have suggested previously, although a methodology section and its affiliates are not necessary for the structural outline of this publication, these can be added either before or after this section. It depends on whether or not the author intends on including primary research data in their study. These sections shall be completed using the regular procedures that are put forth by academia, for the sake of maintaining objectivity and experimental replicability. Something else that is worth noting is that some academic articles include headers for helping readers to distinguish what each paragraph covers in terms of subject material. In this article, I have not done so, but rather, I have added an explanation of what my intentions are at the beginning and at the end of each paragraph so that the reader is aware of what I shall be discussing in the subsequent paragraph(s). As I have done in the previous sections, I shall use this article as a case illustration to concretize what has been said about this section. In the first paragraph of the Research and Analysis section, I have started the discussion by defining the meaning of “academic”, with the aim of laying the foundation of what was to be discussed in the subsequent paragraphs. I have followed through by specifying what an academic publication is, what its structural outline is comprised of and I gave an example as to where such publications can be found online. Using the procedure as mentioned previously, I described in the proceeding paragraph what a non-academic publication is, as well as what it entails. The purpose of this was to compare the two different kinds of publications and to clarify that they are on opposite ends of the conceptual spectrum. This would later enable the reader to understand as to what an objective, non-academic publication is, given that it is situated somewhere in the middle of that spectrum. Following this description and at the end of the paragraph, I make my intentions clear by stating that in the paragraph I would be explaining why the publication I am proposing is needed and why its importance would grow in the future. Throughout the text I use the same procedure for letting the reader know what to expect and simultaneously, I use a language that is semi-formal. What that means is that even though the language I have used was often technical, I would still describe the meaning of it, as I have done with the term for grey literature. In addition, I address myself with “I” in order to make it personalized, with the aim of helping the reader feel as if they are directly listening to what I am saying. This helps with improving their understanding as to what is written by provoking critical thought and imagery in their minds. The use of descriptive and technical language is mandatory in academia, whereas the use of subjective language is normally discouraged. This is why I have labelled the use my language as semi-formal, which is appropriate given the context.
This section involves a summarization of the research that has been discussed, with the author mentioning the key points that the reader ought to remember. As with all other publications, this section is always placed at the end of the discussion. If the study involved primary research, then the author should provide suggestions as to how the study could be improved. The author should also, if possible, provide a brief description as to how the reader can apply these discoveries to help benefit themselves and civilization, which is one aspect of this publication format that distinguishes it from its counterparts. The reader will be able to see this in action in the concluding section of this article.
As with the methodology section and those that are related to it, this section is optional. Whether the author chooses to add this section or not will depend on if he/she has received any help from friends, relatives or fellow scientists. Any of the following can be considered as help: informative suggestions, designing and/or carrying out the study, reviewing the manuscript for errors and receiving funding. The purpose of this section is mainly for giving credit to those that deserve it and for letting the readers know who they could contact in the event they may have further questions. This section should be situated in between the conclusion and the reference list.
Another characteristic that distinguishes this publication format from the rest is the reference list. Notice that this section is titled as “References” and not “Bibliography”. The reason for this is because I have combined the notes and citations within the same section, which is akin to what I have done with the Research and Analysis section. To elaborate, I have done this with the aim of reducing clutter in the text, which can occur when footnotes are added at the bottom of the page. Although footnotes are strategically positioned by standard, I have opted instead to insert them in the reference list, in accordance to the number they have been assigned. The logic I have applied is that by having a singular numbered system for identifying where a note or source citation has been added, then this would make it simpler for the reader to understand. All the reader has to do to refer to a note or source, is to view the number allocated to it in the text and match it with the number that is in the reference list, e.g. the subsection “Design and Structural Outline of an Article14” has the number fourteen allocated to it, indicating that the reader should refer to the same number in the reference list if they desire to obtain more information. Another reason as to why I have designed it this way is because this publication format is designed for flexibility and efficacy. Once again I must elaborate. Because this publication format may include a combination of academic, non-academic and semi-academic information sources, and because in this article I have used a combination of all three, which have been obtained through the internet, I have made it a priority to add a hyperlink whenever possible. This is so as to ensure that the reader can access these sources of information as easily as possible. I have also done this because I am assuming, by nature of its design, that the publication would be distributed online, which facilitates the access readers have to the information. Even if it were to be distributed in paper format, then at least the individuals that have access to a computer would be able to retrieve the information sources without too much difficulty. Another attribute that is worth mentioning is that any citation format can be used in this section, as long as consistency is maintained. However, in a similar vain to what I have already mentioned, I would encourage the numbered system for in-text citations, as it helps to reduce clutter and improve the readability of the text. Instead of following standard academic procedure that involves inserting in between parentheses the name of the source and the date it was last published or edited, I suggest on using a numbered reference system, as I have shown previously. I have found that this system is more helpful as it requires less space and because it is less distracting for the readers when focusing their attention on comprehending what is written. Aside from that, the citation guidelines put forth by academia are appropriate for ensuring objectivity, i.e. the author should use references when they are making a statement whose information is derived from a source they have consulted. If the author is making an assertion that does not necessitate further explanation in the text, then they may add a note, which is appropriate if it helps to clarify a point made, or makes a statement about the author’s intentions when relating to the subject matter. Likewise, a note would be appropriate if the author is making a suggestion for additional literature that might contribute further to the reader’s understanding of the subject matter. This is something that I have done in the fourteenth reference of this article, where the statement “Some of the information used in creating the framework of the article can be found by clicking on the following link” is promptly followed by a hyperlink, directing the user to click on it, should they desire to learn more.
Design and Structural Outline of a Book
The structural outline of a book is almost essentially the same as that of an article when using the format that I am proposing. Since I have already discussed the details of the article’s design and structural outline, I shall not replicate everything here. Let me remind the reader that a non-fiction book is comprised of chapters and that those chapters are basically a collection of articles or essays. Therefore, the publication format can be applied to a non-fiction book. However, there are some minor differences; a book should include additional features such as: a table of contents and an index, both of which help guide the readers toward finding specific bits of information more easily.15
The objective, non-academic publication is neither academic, nor non-academic, but rather, somewhere in between these two extremes. It refers to a way of designing and structuring a written work so that it enables practically anyone to distribute their research findings in a manner that is easy for them to accomplish and easy for the reader to understand. I have found that there is a need for this publication format due to a number of reasons that are mainly related to the mobilization of knowledge and to the discussion of ideas and issues that appear to be disregarded by academia. I have also explained the importance of using grey literature, due to how it can provide the reader with unique insights as to what a certain subject is about. Even though this publication format is comparable to those that are semi-academic, it is distinguishable due to the nature of its design and its structural outline, something that I have illustrated with examples in the latter portion of this article. The other objective of this article was to provide an official framework for conducting the kind of research that it is designed for, something that I have found was lacking with semi-academic publications. It should be regarded not just as a means for helping to bridge the gap between scientific research and socioeconomic development. It should also be regarded as a means for enabling anyone to conduct quality research and who believes that they have something significant and that is worth sharing due the positive impacts it could have on the state of society.
1 “Academic”. 2019. Etymonline. www.etymonline.com/word/academic#etymonline_v_25938.
2 Kelly, Jacalyn, Tara Sadeghieh, and Khosrow Adeli. 2014. “Peer Review In Scientific Publications: Benefits, Critiques, & A Survival Guide”. The Journal Of The International Federation Of Clinical Chemistry And Laboratory Medicine. 25 (3): 227-243. www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4975196/.
3 “About Science & AAAS”. 2019. Science | AAAS. www.sciencemag.org/about/about-science-aaas.
4 “About Us”. 2019. The Economist. www.economist.com/about-the-economist.
5 One example of such a researcher is Andrew Johnson, whose website can be accessed by clicking on the following link: www.checktheevidence.com/wordpress/2007/07/03/about/.
6 One example of such a website is Archive Freedom and it can be accessed by clicking on the following link: archivefreedom.org/.
7 “So What the Heck is Knowledge Mobilization and Why Should I Care?”. 2018. Research Impact Canada. researchimpact.ca/so-what-the-heck-is-knowledge-mobilization-and-why-should-i-care/.
8 Parker, Kelly A. 2015. “Interdisciplinary Research And Problem Solving: A Guide For Students”. www.academia.edu/14982806/Interdisciplinary_Research_and_Problem_Solving_A_Guide_for_Students.
9 Moncada, Andrea. 2012. “More Communication Options And Tools: Semi Academic Journals”. On Think Tanks. onthinktanks.org/articles/more-communication-options-and-tools-semi-academic-journals/.
10 Auger, Charles. P. 1998. Information Sources In Grey Literature. 4th ed. Reed Business Information Ltd.
11 “Internet Archive: Projects”. 2019. Internet Archive. archive.org/projects/.
12 Hartley, James. 2012. “New Ways of Making Academic Articles Easier To Read”. International Journal Of Clinical And Health Psychology 12 (1): 143-160. www.aepc.es/ijchp/articulos_pdf/ijchp-405.pdf.
13 Azevedo, L.F., F. Canário-Almeida, J. Almeida Fonseca, A. Costa-Pereira, J.C. Winck, and V. Hespanhol. 2011. “How to write a scientific paper—Writing the methods section”. Portuguese Journal of Pulmonology 17 (5): 232-238. www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0873215911000973?via%3Dihub.
14 Some of the information used in creating the framework of the article can be found by clicking on the following link: www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1319562X18300135.
15 For more information about what the standard structural outline of a book is composed of, I would suggest referring to the following website as it offers a useful guide: www.thebookdesigner.com/2009/09/parts-of-a-book/.