It has long been known that
there is a close correlation between the amount of cosmic rays that reaches the
surface of our planet and geological activity. In years with above average
cosmic radiation, volcanic eruptions and earthquakes tend to be more frequent
and more energetic than in years with below average
cosmic radiation. So much is known. However, what exactly it is about cosmic
rays that causes our planet to react as it does is not clear. Little can be
found on the internet. Few have attempted to come up with a mechanism to explain
the correlation, so I decided to do some research and calculations myself to
see what I could find on my own. As it turned out, quite a few things can be
said based solely on simple facts freely available on the web:
First, it is clear
that cosmic rays are mostly Hydrogen and Helium ions zipping through space at
tremendous speeds. 90% of cosmic rays have atomic number 1, and only 1% of them
have an atomic number higher than 2. Cosmic rays are in other words mostly very
light stuff. But because they are whizzing about at close to light speed, they
carry a lot of energy. A single particle can reach energy levels comparable to
a baseball moving at 90 km/hour, which is an awful lot of punch for something
as small as a cosmic ray.
Another important fact is that
cosmic rays are very abundant. On average, every square meter of our planet is
hit by 10,000 impacts per second. That is a lot of impacts and one might assume
from this that there must be a tremendous amount of matter involved. But that
is not the case. The total rest mass off all cosmic
rays reaching our planet add up to a mere 320 grams per year (See Appendix A).
This is an astonishing small amount considering the rate of impacts and the
fact that cosmic rays set off earthquakes and volcanic eruptions.
However, when we
include in our calculations the speed at which these 320 grams of particles are
moving we get a very different picture. We are no longer confronted with a tiny
little collection of matter, but with an enormous energy.
The total kinetic
energy of cosmic rays impacting the surface of our planet over a year is comparable to a cube of rock with 2 km wide sides
being dropped from a height of 12 meters (See Appendix B). That's a rock the
size of a small mountain, so the energy involved is of tectonic proportions.
the energy from cosmic rays was to be absorbed by our planet and turned into
pressure, it would be enough to push the
above-mentioned mountain 12 meters up every year.
Alternatively, thousands of mountains could be pushed up a few millimetres, so the fact
that an increase in cosmic radiation result in more earthquakes and volcanic
eruptions is in this perspective no wonder at all.
Quite clearly, it is the
kinetic energy of cosmic rays and not their amount that has a measurable effect
on geological activity.
This means that the geological
model best suited to account for cosmic rays must be one where energy rather
than matter plays a central role. A model requiring a lot of matter cannot be
satisfied by our calculated results. A model in which energy plays a central
role, on the other hand, is much more likely to fit, and therefore help us
understand what's going on.
For expansion tectonics, this
means that the hollow Earth model comes out far better than the solid Earth
model, because the hollow Earth model has heat and pressure as the driving
force of expansion while the solid Earth model has added matter as its driving
force. A hollow, gas filled planet can turn energy into pressure, while a solid
planet has no such mechanism. A solid planet can only grow through added
Some may argue on behalf of
the solid Earth model that the energy of cosmic rays can be converted into
matter, and that this
should be included
in our consideration. After all, there are tremendous energies involved that
could in theory be converted into mass. But this argument has two problems to
it. Firstly, there is no known mechanism in which energy can be turned into
matter. Secondly, even if there exists such a
mechanism, the kinetic energy of cosmic rays will be far from sufficient to
produce the required amount. The energy that can push a small mountain 12
meters up if converted directly into pressure can only produce about 100 grams
of mass (See Appendix C). Clearly, converting energy into mass is a terribly
inefficient way to produce pressure. Such a mechanism, if it existed, would
have no effect as far as adding matter to our planet.
There is simply no
way to use cosmic rays to defend the added mass hypothesis, and so we end up with
the conclusion that the hollow Earth model is best suited to account for the
hollow Earth model can account for the fact that the expansion process is
accelerating. Two mechanisms inherent in the hollow Earth model work towards an
acceleration in the speed of expansion. Firstly, the crust of our planet
becomes thinner with expansion, and therefore less resistant to further
expansion. Secondly, the gas filled hollow at the centre of our planet becomes
larger and therefore able to convert more cosmic radiation into pressure. The
more inflated our planet becomes, the quicker the expansion will be.
As long as most of
our planet's internal gases remain contained within the crust, expansion is
likely to speed up. This will continue until a time when major venting causes
most, if not
all the internal gases to escape into our atmosphere. At that
point the expansion will slow down and stop. However, when that time comes, our
planet will have turned itself into a gas planet with an enormously thick
atmosphere. Earth will no longer be anything like it is today.
Once expansion has
passed a slow initial build up, it becomes rapid in geological terms, and this
helps explain why we do not see expansion happening everywhere. Planets tend to
be either rocky pre-expansion objects, or gas covered post-expansion objects.
In our solar system, we have the gas giants as examples of post-expansion
objects, and we have Mercury and Mars as examples of pre-expansion objects,
while Venus and Earth are both in a rapid expansion phase.
Whether Mercury and Mars will ever get into a
rapid expansion phase depends on their internal chemical make-up. What is
needed for expansion is not only energy, but something to
into pressure. A planet
must have a reservoir of gas and liquids
inside of it
to expand. Without any liquids or gas, cosmic rays will do
little more than heat up the rocks and minerals of the planet. No pressure will
arise and there will be no expansion.
The fact that
Mercury and Mars have undergone very little if any expansion, despite being
much more exposed to cosmic rays than Earth, is an indication that there is
very little gas and liquids inside these two planets. Conversely, the fact that
Earth is expanding, despite relatively modest cosmic ray exposure, is an
indication of a plentiful reservoir of gases and liquids at its core.
strongly suggest that Earth is a hollow gas filled sphere, expanding due to
internal pressures. It is also apparent that cosmic rays are a major driving
force in the expansion process. Although unlikely to be the only source of
energy for our planet's expansion, we have found in cosmic rays a substantial
source of kinetic energy, ready to be converted into pressure.
Having found in my
previous essay a viable theory of gravity to support the hollow Earth model, we
now have the additional benefit that we also have a viable source of energy.
Furthermore, the hollow Earth model can explain why some planets expand faster than
others, and why expansion accelerates over time. This is in addition to why
surface gravity increases with expansion, explained in earlier essays.
are being explained by the hollow Earth model, and theoretical problems are being
solved, the model's appeal keeps
increasing. Hopefully, it will soon be seen as at
least as serious a model as any of the others.
Effects of increasing cosmic
Morton Spears and the
Capacitor Model of Gravity:
To calculate the total rest
mass of cosmic rays reaching the surface of our planet, we can use the
1. Every square
meter of Earth's surface is bombarded with an average of 10,000 particles per
2. Earth has a total
surface area of 510 * 10^12 m²
are 31.5 * 10^6 seconds per year
average rest mass of a cosmic ray is about 2.00 * 10^-24 g
From this, we get
a total of 5.10 * 10^18 impacts per second for all of our planet, which adds up
to 160 * 10^24 impacts per year.
impacts are consumed by our planet, the total mass added through cosmic rays is
a mere 320 grams.
To calculate the total kinetic
energy equivalent of cosmic rays reaching the surface of our planet, we can use
the following data:
extreme energy measured for a single particle was equivalent to a baseball
moving at 90 km/h
of baseball is a little under 150 grams
energy of cosmic rays are 10^-12 that of the most extreme
planet is impacted 160 * 10^24 times per year
From this, we get
that a typical impact has the kinetic energy equivalent of 150 * 10^-12 grams
moving at 90 km/h, and that the total kinetic energy equivalent of all impacts
over a year
is 24.0 *10^9 metric tonnes moving at 90 km/h.
That is equivalent
to a cube of rock with 2 km sides and density of 3 kg/l
into our planet at the speed of 90 km an hour.
To attain 90 km/h
speeds through free fall, a drop of about 12.5 meters is required.
To calculate the
mass equivalent of the total kinetic energy, we can use the following data:
kinetic energy of cosmic rays over a year is 24.0 *10^9 metric tonnes moving at
for kinetic energy is Ek = ½ mv^2
for Energy to mass conversion is E = mC^2
of light is 1 * 10^9 km/h
From this we get
Ek = 97.2 * 10^12 metric tonnes km^2/h^2.
Converting Ek into
mass, we get 97.2 grams.